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GENERAL INFORMATION ON ANTALYA
 


 A N T A L Y A

  GENERAL INFORMATION ON ANTALYA

 
            The Taurus mountain range of southern Anatolia runs parallel to the Mediterranean in an east-west direction, resulting in the formation of narrow coastal plains, which are surrounded by mountains on three sides and open to the south sea. On some parts of the coast, where the mountains plunge sharply into the sea, small natural bays and peninsulas are formed. Antalya is situated on a plain which consists of two flat areas formed of falez rock at a height of 35 m, where the mountains recede from the shore. On the first rocky plain on the coast is the town centre and on the plain behind it, named Kepezüstü, small settlement units have been established. The coast is 530 km in length and borders with Eşen in the west and Kaledran creek in the east. The province has an area of 20,820 km2. The soil of the plain is made up of conglomerate, alluvium and travertine falez rocks. The Taurus mountains, formed of limestone and serpentine lands, with karst surface formations, have many deep valleys, caves, crevices and faults. In the marshy areas at a height of 300 m from the coast scrub trees, known as maquis, are found.  These include oleander, wild strawberries, sandalwood, strawberry trees, myrtle, chinaberry trees, bay, chaste trees, carob trees, broom and spurge.  Thyme, sage, saffron, burdock, asphodel, asparagus, blackberry, chrysanthemum and, sparsely, oak, Oriental plane, wild pear, olive and linden trees are also found. 300 metres further on in, the red pine and oak forests, and marshes with eucalyptus trees can be seen. 1200 m further on the forests with cedar, fir trees, Scotch pine, juniper and beech begin. As the alluvial soil on the plains is suitable for agriculture, vegetables, fruit and flowers are grown in greenhouses for export. Open orange, mandarin, lemon and grapefruit gardens can be seen in the vicinity, in the warm Mediterranean winds. On the east of the Antalya plain, banana and avocado are grown. Cotton is sown as an industrial plant and cotton production, along with cotton mills and textile factories, holds great potential for Turkey. Apples, pears, quince, grapes and sesame are grown on the mountainous plateaus. The regional fauna is very good for hunting tours. In Düzlerçamı on the Taurus mountains, covering an area of 10,000 hectares, fallow deer, wild goat and roe deer hunting is permitted on a controlled basis. Wolves, foxes, brown bears, martens, wild boar, wild cats and jackals are the wild species that are often found. The Taurus Leopard was known to exist until recently. Partridge, quail, turtle dove, wild pigeon, blackbird, woodcock, francolin and wild duck can be regarded as game birds. The region is well-known for its grida fish; in addition to this, sea bream, horse mackerel, black bream, gilt-head, grey mullet, gurnard, whiting, bonito, striped red mullet, needlefish, large bonito, red gurnard and red mullet are among the major sea fish, other sea produce includes hermit crab, lobster, shrimp, cuttle-fish and mussel. In addition, cage fishing is carried out in the sea at six points on the coast where sea-bass and grey mullet are bred. Fresh water line fishing is carried out in the Eşen, Dim, Köprüçay, Manavgat, Akçay and Alara rivers. The fish restaurants established within water in the Dim Creek are particularly famous. The main fresh water fish are fresh water chub, fresh water perch, carp, mirror-carp, eel, bleak and tench. There are numerous trout production farms and restaurants in those parts of the Taurus Mountains close to water and river beds. The province of Antalya is located between the north latitudes of 36,07° - 37,29° and east longitudes of 29,20° - 32,35°. Since the area is closed to the cold northerly winds, it is characterized by the typical Mediterranean climate with hot, dry summers and moderately warm and rainy winters. In the area with sunny weather for 10 months a year the temperature climbs up to 45°C in July and August. The sea breeze and the northeasterly winds blowing from inland relieve the area under this temperature.

 
Months     Average temperature  Seawater temperature
 
January            16,5               17,6
February           16,6               17
March              18                 16,5
April              20,5               18,5
May                24                 20,5
June               29                 24,5
July               32                 28,5
August             33                 29,5
September          30                 27,5
October            27                 25
November           22                 21
December           18                 18
 


The highest point of the Taurus mountains is Akdağ at an altitude of 3025 metres. Located to the northwest of the city centre and at a distance of 50 km is the Saklıkent ski and recreation centre on Beydağları. Here one can ski and then go down to the shore and into the sea during the months of January-April. Thanks to this characteristic the city is called the Turkish riviera. In Saklıkent there are two teleski and ski courses along with villas and accommodation facilities available in the area. Situated on Bakırlı Hill behind Saklıkent is the Antalya National Space Observatory with a reflecting telescope 40 m in diameter and a telescope 150 cm in diameter. It is possible to watch meteor showers and shooting stars on certain days of the year. In rivers rafting and canoeing sports and on the Taurus mountains jeep safari, hunting and trekking tours are organised. Alternatively, there is rock-climbing, bird watching tourism, photo-safari, mountain tourism, line fishing and health tourism at the thalasso and dialysis centres in Geyirbayır. Holy tourism activities are organized in Myra, St.Nicholas and Patara. There are underwater diving centres on the coast, primarily in Kemer, Çamyuva, Olympos, Adrasan, Kaş, Kalkan, Üçağız, Kekova, Side and Alanya. In addition, yacht tours are organized from the port of Antalya to Düden Waterfalls-Karpuzkaldıran and Kemer, from Side to Alanya, from Demre-Çayağzı to Kekova, from Kaş to Kekova, from Kemer to Çıralı-Olympos-Adrasan and Cape Gelidonya. There are also boat tours on Manavgat creek and canoe tours on Xanthos creek. In addition, blue voyage, which covers the southwestern Anatolian coast, ends in Antalya. There are ferryboat trips from Alanya to Cyprus and from Antalya to Italy. Antalya today is a world tourism centre with its unique touristic accommodation facilities, nature and historical beauties. The city of Antalya is managed by a governor and a city council, with one greater city and three district municipalities. The Antalya port is one of the most prominent export and import ports of Turkey. The Free Trade Zone existing within the port conveniently serves the export of all types of products, primarily being textile, mine and agricultural products.

 
HISTORY


            As a result of the research conducted at the Karain cavern located to the north of the city it is understood that the area has been inhabited since the prehistorical era. It is known that the Turquoise/Etruscan tribes moving southwards from the Euroasian steppes in around 3000 B.C. settled and founded their city in the Antalya region as in all of Anatolia. The area is named Ahhiyava in the Hittite inscriptions. It is understood that the Luwi and Lukka tribes of the Turquoises also settled in the mountainous Psidia, Lycia and Pamphilia regions located within the city limits of Antalya. The area went under the reign of Kimmer in the 7th century, subsequently followed by Persians, Macedonians, Pers, Romans and Byzantines and, finally, was seized by the Turks in 1207. The root of the name of the city is understood to be “Attala”, that is, “the City of Hakan, son of God” in the Turquoise/Luwi language. It served as the centre of the Teke Sanjak in the lands of Karamanoğulları for a certain period of time, then subordinated to the province of Konya in the 19th century and finally became a province in 1923. The city which was “Adalia” during the Roman and Byzantine eras has been converted into Antalya today through phonetic pronunciation.

 

DAILY LIFE, CULTURE AND ETHNOGRAPHY OF ANTALYA

Thanks to its historical background the Antalya region enjoys a rich culture and ethnography. In addition to the characteristics of settled cultures, the local people also synthesised the characteristics of the yörük (nomadic) culture, thus establishing a unique culture of their own. The migration of the local people from the shore towards the uplands on the Taurus mountains because of the excessive temperature during summers created a need as such, forcing them to produce the needs of the yörük culture in addition to the products grown on the coast. These people, owning herds of sheep and goats before everything else, first produced felt tents from the wool of these domestic animals in order to shelter themselves on the uplands and, alongside this, specialised in the production of animal produce such as milk, butter and cheese. They dried various fruits in the mountains and made jams and pickles with them, and made molasses from grapes. 40 different types of jam are made in the region including, primarily, bitter orange, bergamot, quince, apricot, apple, eggplant, watermelon, fig, wild strawberry, black mulberry and blackberry. Moreover, besides the livestock farming, dairy produce and hunting, the local people migrating to the uplands on the Taurus mountains also valued handicrafts and mainly wove the famous Döşemealtı Carpets of the area. These medium sized carpets are dyed using natural madder and are generally red, dark blue and green. With pure wool warp and weft, these carpets feature five stone, camel’s foot, branch and cross motifs. The yörüks (nomads) adorn their houses, tents, saddle- and domestic animals and new-born babies with a blue eye stone against the evil eye according to the old Turkish rules and customs in order to protect themselves from the darkness of the night and all ill-luck. Today, in the villages on the hills of the Taurus mountains known as Döşemealtı, rugs, provisions sacks, socks and various household covers are woven along with elegant crochet-work embroidery. In Akseki small household utensils such as wooden spoons are carved out of box tree wood. All of these authentic local products are sold in restored commercial buildings and souvenir shops in the city, such as Tek Kapılı Han, Alarahan, Serapsu Han and Bedesten. As for contemporary produce, all kinds of jewellery, gold handicrafts, silver, ready-to-wear leather produce, hand-woven Turkish carpets, international textile trademarks and all kinds of souvenirs are on sale in the shopping centres around the airport and at the Festival Market, Migros and Liman Megacentres. Antalya’s most famous local dishes include Piyaz, made with tahini (crushed sesame seeds), garlic, walnuts and boiled dried beans, spicy hibeş with mixed cumin and tahini, şiş köfte, tandır kebap, domates civesi, şakşuka and various cold Mediterranean dishes with olive oil.

 
 Dönerciler Çarşısı is an authentic spot where the local dishes are found. There are fish restaurants, where all types of seafood are served, in Doğu Garajı, Meltem Çarşısı and on Lara and Konyaaltı beaches. Moreover, Döner Gazino and Restaurant located on Tünek Tepe present a splendid panorama of Antalya. Antalya folklore includes zeybek dances to music generally played on the saz, with wooden spoons, small drums and the tambourine. On parts of the Taurus mountains religious folk dances, called sema, are performed by yörüks. Yörüks also have instrumental-only folk dance tunes, called “boğaz” tunes. Antalya today is a world tourism and cultural centre with its tourism potential increasing every year. With its numerous accommodation centres, restaurants and tourism activities from Alanya to Fethiye it serves both summer and winter tourism. Various international fairs are organised in the city every year, primarily being the tourism fair at the Expo Centre and the food and beverage fairs aimed at tourism, such as Touristic Enterprises equipment. Among the important artistic and cultural activities are the international Golden Orange Film Festival organised every year, Classical Music Festivals organised at Aspendos Theatre, exhibitions, concerts, seminars, conferences and colloquiums for tourists, organised at the Glass Pyramid and the Atatürk Cultural Centre. The city also enjoys the amenities of modern life thanks to its modern theatres, art houses, exhibition halls and symphony orchestra.

 

HISTORICAL WORKS OF ART WITHIN THE CITY OF ANTALYA


            Old Antalya is located in a place now known as Kaleiçi. Kaleiçi contains ruins dating back thousands of years, temples, churches, basilicas and 715 houses and 47 monuments from the time of the Seljuk and Ottoman dwellings. Most of these having been restored, they serve tourism. As a result of the efforts made, the Golden Apple, recognised as the Tourism Oscar, was awarded to Antalya Kaleiçi in 1984. The foremost work of art dating from the Roman era in the region is Hadrian’s Gate, built in 139 A.D. in commemoration of the Emperor Hadrian’s visit to the city. Also known as Üç Kapılar, this two-tier monumental gate has three arches and 8 columns with Corinthian capitals set upon pedestals at the façade and rear. There are square watch towers on either side of the gate. On the western falez rock end of the Antalya Park, the 14-metre high, two-tier Hıdırlık Tower is visible. Dating from the Roman era, it is thought to have been used as a lighthouse. The tower, with a square base and the upper part built of rounded carved stone blocks, and remains of frescoes visible on its inner walls, was later used as a basilica. The Panagia Basilica, built by the Byzantines, to the east of the Hıdırlık Tower, was transformed into a mosque upon the addition of a single-galleried minaret by the Turkish Sultan Korkut in 1467. The building consists of two sections in the shape of a double cross and is remarkable with its arched gate and reliefs on the door-window edges, and marble columns. The fire in 1896 ruined the mosque and its minaret collapsed halfway down. Therefore, it is today called Kesik Minare (The Truncated Minaret). The symbols of the city, Yivli Minare (The Grooved Minaret) and Ulu Cami Külliyesi, were built upon the remains of the Byzantine church by Sultan Alaaddin in 1230. The frame of the 45 metre high minaret, built of brick on a square stone pedestal, was erected with bracing in the form of 8 grooves, and the upper part is embellished with light blue square mosaic stones. The words God and Muhammed are inscribed on the floor surfaces with turquoise stones and tiles. The simply constructed Ulu Cami, standing adjacent to the minaret, has 6 domes covered with roof tiles, raised on 12 columns. Immediately next to the mosque stands Karatay Medresesi, which consists of small chambers.

 

Besides technology, courses in science, philosophy and psychology were taught at the Medrese, which served as the college of its era. To the northwest of the Mosque is Mevlevihane. This 18th century square building is reinforced by cradle vaults and the dome is covered with roof tiles. To the east of Külliye is the Tomb of Mehmet Bey, an octagonal construction upon a square floor, walls of dressed stone blocks and a pyramid spire-shaped roof covered with roof tiles. To the west there is a Selçuklu Hamamı (Seljuk Hamam) with walls built of rubble stones, a steam room with a square layout and a roof made of round domes. The Clock Tower, onto which a clock was placed at a later period, is situated at a site known as Castle Gate and is one of the watch towers built on either side of the gate in order to protect it. Of these 25 metre high towers, the one to the east, which is still standing, has a square layout. Murat Paşa Mosque which was built by Kuyucu Murat Paşa in 1570 is covered with a high dome upon a ten-corner frame, with the inscriptions on its inner walls running all through the internal façade in a ribbon while presenting the most beautiful example of the Turkish-Seljuk art of calligraphy. The altar next to the marble pulpit worked with reliefs is a simple construction. The last congregation place is covered with three domes rising above pointed arches of coloured stone on four round columns. In the city centre the Sinan Mosque ordered to be built by Sheikh Sinan during the 16th century with rubble stone was built single-galleried with the short minaret made of dressed stone. The Mosque has a wooden floor and is covered with a tiled roof. Sheikh Sinan’s tomb is situated opposite the mosque. Tekeli Mehmet Paşa Mosque, located behind the Clock Tower at Kalekapısı (Castle Gate), dates back to the 16th century. The sides of the entrance gate located to the north and the window edges are made of dressed stone. There is one large and three small domes over the mosque, which has a rectangular layout. Balibey Mosque on Balibey street in the city centre was ordered to be constructed by the Cavalry Chief Malkoçoğlu Balibey during the 15th century. Mtüsellim Mosque, which was ordered to be built by Mehmet Ağa, the Head of the Palace Doorkeepers, in 1769 is made of dressed stone. At the northwest corner it has a single-galleried minaret made of brick. The mosque is covered by a large dome on drum frames in three stages, with 4, 8 and 10 corners. Ahi Yusuf Mosque, which was built by Ahi Yusuf in 1249, has a square foundation and is made of rubble stone. This little masjid is covered by a round dome with roof tiles. To the east of the city centre are Demirci Karaali Mosque, which was built during the 18th century, and KırCami, which was re-constructed with the addition of a minaret.


ANTALYA ARCHEOLOGICAL MUSEUM


This is the second largest museum in Turkey, covering an area of 7000 m2. The museum was awarded the “European Council Special Prize” as a result of its activities in 1988. It has 13 exhibition halls and an open-air gallery. There are about 5000 artefacts on display. Antalya Museum is the only museum in Turkey with a section devoted to children. In the first hall of the museum, antiquities showing homework and mathematical calculations made on clay tablets by children are displayed. In the Natural History and Prehistory Hall there are fossil and mineral samples relating to the development and living creatures of the geological era. These are pine cone fossils, sea urchins and brachiopod fossils. Also on display here are hand axes, arrowheads, cutting stones, bone tools, wedges and various instruments found at Karain and Beldibi caves in the Antalya region dating from the Prehistoric, Paleolithic, Neolithic and Calcolithic eras. In the section to the west of the hall, the antiquities and cubic and brick tomb samples found during the excavations at Elmalı Semahöyük and Karataş are displayed. Various types of baked earthenware vessels, seals, brush stems and dead skeletons discovered in these tombs are displayed within the original Cubic tomb in Hucker form, that is, in the position of an unborn baby. In the Gallery of Gods section there are various forms of black varnished figureless vessels, bellcraters depicting the battle between the amazons and the griffons, lekythoi and black and red vases discovered in Aspendos, which are decorated with three young figures dancing and holding a red vase, displayed in the showcases. In the hall where sculptures of gods are on display, there are the sculptures of Zeus, father of gods, Artemis considered as the guardian of Perge and successor of the main goddess, Leto, Fortuna, Goddess of Luck, Nemesis, Goddess of Fate, Aphrodite, Demeter, Goddess of Earth and Fertility, Serapis, Underground God, Isis, Goddess Controlling the Elements, and Hermes, guardian god of thieves-merchants. In the hall containing Small and Underwater Artefacts, the first piece was found in Foça which is a bronze statue of Herakles, the symbol of power and strength, resting on his sceptre on a bull’s head.

 

 The statue of Atis with a Phrygian conical hat, bronze busts of Athena, goddess of intelligence and wisdom and of a negro, figures of Hermes, a bronze statue of the god Apollonius found in Seleukea, a plate displaying Athena in relief, made of solid silver, rings, earrings, bracelets, brooches, medallions, necklaces and fibula made of gold and precious stones, ceramic and bronze oil lamps, inscriptions and vessels with figures in relief as well as various jewellery and glass articles are on display. Underwater findings, on the other hand, mainly consist of various anchors made of stone and iron, antique amphorae, used for carrying liquids and various vessels. The other showcases display stone statuettes and unguentaria. In the Emperors Hall, in addition to the large size statues of the emperors such as Traian, Hadrianus and Augustus of the Roman era, there are also the statues of the empresses Sabina, Lulia Donna and Plancia Manga. The statues of the famous Three Beauties and the female dancer made of black and white marble are interesting examples. In the Tomb Cults Hall, sarcophagi and reliefs depicting the burial tradition are displayed. The first sarcophagus in the sarcophagi hall belongs to Damitlas Filskas and his family. It consists of a massive coffin and its lid. On the lid the husband and wife are depicted lying on a klinidion (small bed). The sarcophagus with a medallion is immediately to the left of this sarcophagus. There is a medusa’s head in a wreath at one end of the sarcophagus, in the centre, and Eros figures on the sides. The scenes on the sarcophagus symbolise a life filled with success and happiness. To the rear of the hall, there are two sarcophagi ornamented with figures illustrating various moments from the mythological life of Herakles. Additionally, there are 2 sarcophagi from Girland. One of the most striking mosaics on display in the Mosaic and Icons Hall is undoubtedly the Mosaic of Philosophers found in Seleukia around the edge of which the most reputed thinkers, orators, historians and mathematicians of the Antiquity such as Salon, Tykydires, Lykuyrgos, Herodotos, Hesiodos, Demostenes and Pytagoras are included together with their names. Moreover, the Akhilleus Mosaic found in Xanthos is well worth a visit. At the rear part of this section is the treasure of Korydalla/Kumluca. The Icons compiled from various churches primarily being St. Nicholas in Demre are displayed in the southern part of the hall. The icons here include instants from the lives of Jesus Christ and Virgin Mary, Genesis, The Last Supper, Day of Judgement, Death of Holy Virgin/Koimesis, Christ Almighty, 12 Apostles, Baptism, Crucifixion, Miracles and two portraits of Father Christmas and the relics alleged to contain his bones. In the Coins Hall, the Anatolian Minting tradition, technique and economy of 2500 years dating back from the 6th century B.C. until the present day are observed in an educational sequence. Furthermore, Phrygian and Lydian coins as well as Elmalı coins found in the area and in Western Anatolia are displayed in the coins hall. In the Ethnography Hall, various artefacts such as regional art, clothing, handwritten books and weapons and vessels from the Seljuk, Ottoman and Republican eras are on display. In addition, chinaware, porcelain, religious artefacts, padlocks, long dresses with floral decoration and Yörük items are exhibited. In the middle of the Perge Hall, adjacent to the cinevision hall which has 4 Niches on the right and 3 on the left, is the Marsyas statue on a revolving pedestal around which are statues of gods, unearthed at the Perge theatre. The upper part of the wall displays friezes found at Perge theatre. At the furthest end is the Lycian Hall, with an outer façade built in the architectural style of the Lycian sarcophagi, in which findings from the Lycian era are displayed. Large pieces, such as sarcophagi, tombs, tombstones and statues which cannot be displayed inside, are displayed in the Open Air Gallery. The SUNA-İNAN KIRAÇ MEDITERRANEAN CIVILIZATIONS MUSEUM, Ayayorgi Church, built during the 17th century by the Karamanids, who were of Turkish origin and adopted the Orthodox faith, has recently been restored and transformed into a museum complex consisting of an ethnography museum, research library, photograph, document, archive and conference hall. The ATATÜRK HOUSE MUSEUM is the house which was allocated to Atatürk when he visited Antalya on March 6, 1930 and subsequently transformed into a museum where furnishings of that period as well as articles belonging to Atatürk were preserved.

 

DÜDEN WATERFALLS AND ESTUARY


            These are located 12 km from the city centre. The waterfalls, formed by a karstic depression, are 20 metres high and also spring from underground at the point where the water falls. By entering into Dilek Mağarası (Cave of Wishes) located underneath the waterfalls it is also possible to pass to the rear side of the water. The location of the waterfalls has the appearance of a botanical heaven thanks to the rich variety of plants. In the deep valley formed by the falling and flowing water of the waterfalls there are promenades and trout restaurants. The rock tombs observed around the valley bring to mind that the area was a sacred place in ancient times. After 8km the water from the falls forms a small creek, creating a magnificent spectacle as it cascades over the 40 metre high falez rock into the sea in the Lara region. There are restaurants and picnic areas on the falez rock with a view of the sea and waterfalls. Touristic boat tours are organised to the waterfalls from the Marina.

 
KARAİN CAVE


            Karain Cave is located about 30 km northwest of Antalya at Yağcı Village, subordinated to the settlement unit of Yeniköy. It is a prehistoric cave, located at a height of about 370 metres from the sea and about 80 metres up the slope, where the Western Taurus calcareous zone borders on the travertine plain. It was Professor I. Kılıç KÖKTEN, Professor of Prehistory at the Ankara Faculty of Language, History and Geography who began the research on Karain Cave in a systematical manner from 1946 up to 1973, when the layer of compact earth at the entrance to the cave was excavated. Excavations are still underway. According to findings revealed, it was understood that Karain Cave was continuously inhabited in the Middle Paleolithic (Stone) ages. It is possible to understand from the inscriptions and monograms on the outer walls that this inhabitation also continued during the classical ages and that the cave was used as a sacred votive and worshipping place. Cultural findings in Karain Cave include hand axes, various scrapers, jewellery and arrowheads made of flintstone, in addition to bones of animals such as hippopotamuses, rhinoceroses and elephants; pieces of fossilised bones belonging to homo sapiens, humans of the middle paleolithic era. Most of the findings unearthed at Karain Cave are displayed in the small museum located where the slope borders on the plain and some of them at the Prehistory Hall of the Antalya Museum. To the east of the cave are Kırkgözler Sazlığı (Reedbed), formed by the water of Düden and renowned for its wild duck hunting, and Kırkgöz Han (Inn), measuring 25x45 metres, built by the shore of this reedbed during the 12th century. The only pass in the area located to the North of the Inn going through the Taurus mountains and connecting Central Anatolia with the Mediterranean is Çubuk Pass at an altitude of 924 metres. The ancient road joining Pamphilia with Pisidia starts in the villages of Döşemealtı, east of the Pass, and climbs North, connecting to the Kremna/Bucak settlement. This antique road, paved with stone blocks during the Roman era, was in use until recently, thus the villages established in the area were called Döşemealtı (under-pavement) villages. It is thought that the building ruins found at the beginning of the antique road are the remains of the depot, customs building and garrison of that period. The Turkoman yörüks who have settled in the area today weave the famous Döşemealtı carpets.
 

TERMESSOS


22 km northwest of Antalya, south of the Antalya-Korkuteli motorway on the slope of the 1650 m high Güllük/Solymn mountain, at an altitude of 1050 m, lie the remains of the antique city of Termessos. The area was declared “Güllük/Termessos National Park and Protection Area” due to the best examples of its regional flora, flowers and maquis vegetation, and unique fauna, primarily wild goat. In the Luwi/Etruscan language the word “Terme”, included in the root of the name, means “Pass/Mountain Pass” and “Assa” means “High Fort”, and as such, it was named Termeassa, meaning “Fort City on the Mountain Pass”. The area was also called “Termila”, that is, “Terme Pass” which then became “Dirmil” through a different phonetic pronunciation in today’s Turkish. The area is known to have been a human settlement since prehistoric times and was a part of the Etruscan/Luwian settlement unit around 3000 B.C. Due to the immigration of the Nordic tribes, that is, Turquoise/Isocates, which continued from around 3000 B.C. until around 700 B.C., urbanization began in the small Luwian settlement units in Anatolia and they came on the historical scene. One of the foremost cities established on the Pisidian-Lycian-Pamphilian border by the Termil clan is Termeassa. Termessos, which started to urbanize and flourish after the 6th century B.C., opened onto the sea by joining Phaselis, which was another coastal Lycian city, located to the South of Mount Solym. Excavation research carried out in the area revealed canals carved in rocks running southwards from the hillsides of mount Solym towards the city of Phaselis. Through these canals, the wine and olive oil produced in the area were poured to Phaselis on the coast where jugs were filled and shipped to other countries. In the 5th century B.C., although almost all of Anatolia was occupied by Persians, Termessos was not seized by the Persians. The Macedonian King Alexander who besieged Termessos in 337 B.C. met with the defense of the locals of Termessos and, seeing that he would not be able to capture it, turned towards the shores of Pamphilia. Termessos was the only city in Anatolia which Alexander could not capture during his trip to Asia. Termessos, which had established good relations with the Pergamonians who subsequently came to the area, developed these relations also with Rome which was the heir of the Kingdom of Pergamum, signing an agreement in 72 B.C. after which the city was enriched with various buildings and started flourishing. The city of Termessos, which fell in ruins and was destroyed as a result of the earthquakes which took place in the 5th and 9th centuries A.D. and could not be captured by any army whatsoever in its history, could not find any means for reconstruction and the city folk emigrated to the other cities of Pamphilia and Lycia by the seaside. Thus, the city remains have survived to this day. Tekeoğlu Turkomans who came to the area built a Caravanserai named Evdir Han at the Byzantine sacred site Eudokias situated in the valley in the east of the city. On the King’s Road leading to the antique Termessos remains there is firstly a main entrance gate with a Gymnasium Complex to the east of it. In the complex where, in addition to the teaching of philosophy and positive sciences, all kinds of physical sports activities and competitions were performed, it is understood that the most important lessons were war games and wrestling. Built leaning against the hillside, next to where the inner city walls face the Gymnasium square, Galleries can be seen, and it is understood that these used to have tiers of Stadion seats. Southeast from the front of the Gymnasium there are 26 tiers of seats and a theatre which is thought to have a seating capacity of 6000 people. There are three temples in front of the Odeon and it is understood that the one in the West is Zeus Solymeus, the small one in the middle is Artemis and the one in the East is the Great Artemis Temple. There are shops behind the columns. One of the most important tombs there is the house type tomb with lion’s head relief constructed in the Lycian style and a large number of Lycian type sarcophagi are visible.

 
KURŞUNLU WATERFALLS

 

Located at a distance of 24 km east of the city centre, the waterfalls and their environs cover an area of 33 hectares. In the area, which takes the form of a botanical garden, there are 7 ponds connected by the formation of waterfalls. The 18 metre Waterfalls and the green space and beneficial birds in its environs make it a new conservation area. Furthermore, with its picnic and walking areas, and a restaurant, it is a nice place to relax.


PERGE-AKSU

 
This place is established next to the River Aksu-Kestros, 12 km east of Antalya. The name of the city originates from “Parga” meaning “High” during the Luwian/Etruscan era. The most famous Pergean of  ancient times is Apollonius who calculated the characteristics of an ellipse in geometry. It is known that the city was within the boundaries of the country Ahhiyawa as a very small settlement unit during the Hittite era. The population of the city, which was established on the south-eastern hillside of the acropolis during early periods increased with those who returned from the Trojan war, with the boundaries extending down to the flatlands. When Alexander the Great seized the city in 330 B.C., the Persian occupation ceased. The temples built in the name of Artemis, the chief goddess of the city that was included within the boundaries of the Roman Empire in the wake of the commotion which took place in the 1st century B.C., and her brother Apollonius, were converted into a church during the early times of Christianity, Artemis being identified with Virgin Mary and Apollonius with Jesus Christ. The city became the missionary centre during early periods of Christianity and new ramparts were added during the Pax Romana era. It was exposed to the invasions and plunders of the Arabic raiders during the 7th century. Upon the Aksu river being filled with alluvia and becoming unsuitable for maritime transportation, thus devoid of marine trade, the people emigrated to other cities and abandoned Perge. The first of the city remains that one encounters is the theatre thought to have been built during the 2nd century A.D. 43 caveas of the theatre with a seating capacity of 15,000 spectators are divided into two through a diazoma in the middle. By building a gallery at the end of the uppermost cavea it was intended to optimize the acoustics. The existence of protective walls between the tiers of seats and the orchestra shows that the theatre was used as an arena during the late Roman era. The stage building has two storeys, with its face embellished with marble reliefs. Legends from the mythological life of Bacuss, God of entertainment and wine, are depicted in relief.


 The most striking ones are the reliefs and embossings of Kestros, God of river, with Fortuna, Goddess of fate, standing and the friezes depicting a boy bathed by three Pergean women in the river. The U-shaped Stadion located opposite the theatre has a capacity of 25 thousand people and is a Roman era work of art. The building, with dimensions of 34 x 234 metres, was built upon 50 round arches and consists of 17 caveas. The façades of the arches facing outwards were used as sales stores in ancient times and according to the inscriptions discovered, it is understood that the best selling goods were the wooden statues of Artemis. To the North of the Stadion, one comes to a City Gate dating to the late Roman era connecting two watch towers 10 metres high and covered with slabs of marble. The walls behind the gate entrance are also marble-faced, with 4 round-arched built-in niches thought to have contained statues of deities. Through this gate one steps into Septimus Severus Square, 70 metres long. To the right of the square, the ruins of the protocol box are visible. On the left hand side are the remains of a monumental fountain. The surface of the fountain, which is 15 metres high, is worked with the reliefs of Artemis, Aphrodite and Nymph muses and is faced with slabs of marble. A little further ahead, one comes to Palaestra which is a hall belonging to the Roman Bathhouse complex, paved with coloured mosaics on the floor, where gymnastics and wrestling sports were performed. Opposite to this are a small dressing room with niches on its internal walls and next to it, a Frigidarium/cold room with a cold water pool 1 metre deep. Further along one passes into the Tepidarium/warming room, which was also used as a sitting and resting area, and Caldarium/hot room where the floor is marble-faced. This section was heated from below via a Hypocaust/hot air system, a Roman invention. In the corner of the room the remains of the brick columns through which hot air passed are visible. From this section one passes through a narrow door to Sudatorium/steam and sweat room where there are five square marble bathtubs, with marble-facing on all surfaces. During the Roman era bath culture was highly advanced and bathhouses were very important places where bureaucrats of high ranks and merchants met almost every day and spent a major part of the day, and talks and discussions were held on the commercial and political topics of the country and, furthermore, major decisions were taken. As entry of women into these bathhouses was forbidden, all services were provided by men. Going from Septimus Severus Square towards the acropolis, one can access the Hellenistic Gate, the first gate of the city, protected by two large round towers, with a small protocol court in the shape of a horseshoe at the rear. It is thought that there were small wooden chambers serving as dormitories for the watch keepers on the towers. It is understood that the statues of various deities, primarily being the Goddess Artemis and God Apollonius, and Roman emperors used to occupy the niches in the internal surfaces of the walls facing the protocol square behind the towers.


In front of the marble triumphal arch with three vaults where the square ends, the statue of the Nun Plangia Magna, the wealthiest woman of the city was erected. From there one passes to the Colonnaded Street. Behind the street is Stoa / Pedestrian Way, 4 metres wide, with shops further behind. The most remarkable columns on the street are the four marble columns with Corinthian capitals, 7 metres high, embellished with reliefs symbolising Apollonius, Artemis, Calchas the hero and Fortuna, Goddess of luck. At the end of the Colonnaded street, Acropolis Nymphaeum/Monumental Fountain, 21 metres long, is visible. In the Acropolis, water cisterns of various sizes were built during the Byzantine era and it is thought that the famous Artemis Pergeia Temple also existed here. Turning southwards from the Colonnaded street, the Agora of a square plan next to the Hellenistic Gate is encountered. The bottom of the pedestrian way in the Agora, surrounded by double rows of granite columns with Corinthian capitals, is embellished with geometrical motifs ornamented with coloured mosaics. Behind the pedestrian way are small shops in the form of interconnected cubicles. The symbol of each shop is worked in relief on the marble on top of the entrance door. There is a round building in the middle of the Agora square and it is thought that this served as the distributor of the water network. The Agora square is also considered as a space where, in ancient times, the urban folk, slaves and people of different social classes met, spent their leisure time, occasionally played dual games of various sorts and discussed the commercial – political problems of the city and performed their public events. The remains of the city’s sewerage system can also be seen towards the South of the Agora square.

 
SILLYON

 
            On the hill behind Asar Village, 22 km to the east of Antalya, lie the remains of the ancient city of Sillyon. It is understood that its name, in the original Luwian, used to be “Swilwana”, meaning “place with a beautiful pass”. Indeed, the place where the ancient city was located is the flatland, between the sea and the Taurus mountains, with the most striking natural beauty in the area. Sillyon, which was built as an acropolis city on top of Asar Hill by the Etruscan/Luwian clans in around 3000 B.C., experienced the same historical process as the other Pamphylian cities. Its population increased upon the participation of those returning from the Trojan War during the 12th century B.C. and it made its progress during the Pax Romana period and was adorned with a wide variety of buildings. It became the centre of Christianity, subordinated to Perge during the Byzantine epoch, and was set on fire and destroyed by the Arabs who reached to the southern shores of Anatolia during the 7th century A.D. The Turkomans who came to the area towards the end of the 11th century A.D. established a new settlement called Asar Village/ Tepe Village on the southern hillside of the Acropolis hill where the remains of the city existed. The most striking of the city’s remains are the southwest facing castle entrance gate and city walls of the Acropolis. The walls, of which the foundations were laid with Cyclopean stones, were subsequently reinforced with quadrangular block stones. There are various gates on the walls. The ground is paved with stone blocks from the entrance gate up to the city centre and the marks of carriage wheels are visible on them even today. To the north of the walls there is a single-domed small mosque. To the east of the mosque a colonnaded street lined with shops and 3 buildings belonging to the statesmen can be seen. On the entrance gate of the buildings are some remarkable inscriptions declaring the official trading laws of the city in the Luwian language. To the south west of the remains are two fountains and buildings, which were originally court buildings but were converted into a basilica during the Byzantine epoch. To the east the remains of the side wall of a theatre, which has completely disappeared, are visible.

 
BELEK

 
This area was formed during the era of torrential rains occurring after the tectonic phenomena which developed in the wake of the glacial epoch upon being filled with the alluvia carried by rivers. The remains of this era constitute hillocks covered with pine and heath, known as CONGLOMERATE, formed of sand and grit accumulated to a height of 100 meters. As the rivers continued to carry the alluvia in the direction of the sea, these sandy hillocks remained on the plains and gradually became distant from the shore. During the last phase of the filling process, long ridges and cordons consisting of sand and grit were formed along the shore because of the large amounts of alluvia carried by the rivers. The rivers, thus hindered and unable to find an outlet, drew an arc towards the east before reaching the sea and emptying into the sea by flowing around these ridges. To the north of the area, near the settlement of Gebiz, is Uçansu Şelaleleri (Waterfalls) and near Akbaş village in the district of Serik, Zeytintaşı Mağarası, a cave of fantastic beauty with its stalagmites and stalagtites. Behind the sandbar in the Belek district is the Kadriye settlement with its tourist facilities, shopping centres and all types of tourist activities. The dense pine forests located behind the sandbar add a unique beauty. Today the most modern tourist accommodation facilities are found on the shores of Kemerağzı, Belek and Serik. The promotion and marketing of these world standard tourist facilities is carried out by BETÜYAB, the institution established by them within their own corporations. Furthermore, there are 6 19-holed world standard Golf Clubs and hotels in the area.

ASPENDOS – BELKIS
 

This is situated on the hill of an acropolis at a height of 40 metres, right by the side of the river Eurymedon-Köprüçay near the settlement of Serik, east of Antalya. The name of the city in the Luwian/Etruscan language was “Asiawanda” meaning “Country of Horses”. Named Ahhiyawa, or “Asitawada” in the Hittite inscriptions, the history of the city regarded as being within the boundaries of the area; it began as an Acropolis city during about 3000 B.C. The population of the city, which gradually developed and extended beyond the Acropolis, increased with those who returned from the Trojan war in the 12th century B.C. and started to grow. Aspendos was an important trade city because of the convenience of the creek Eurymedon for maritime transportation during the epochs before Christ and the Roman era. The horses bred in the area, salt and cheap wines were the most important export products. As a result of the river gradually being filled with alluvia, marine transportation became impossible and the city remained 6 km inland away from the sea.


The most important work of art surviving from the ancient city of Aspendos is the theatre with a capacity of 12,000, which is understood to have been built by Zenon the Architect as a result of a competition during the Roman era in the 2nd century B.C. The Aspendos Theatre has today been accepted as the best preserved antique theatre with the best acoustics in the world. Entrance into the theatre with the Roman architectural characteristics is through two vomitories on both sides in the form of passageways located between the stage building and the seating tiers. Caveas consisting of a total of 41 tiers are divided into two by diazoma on the 20th tier and magazine chambers have been built on a diazoma where spectators would shop and shelter from the sun. The oval shape of the lower cavea tiers and the annexation of 40 arched galleries, equal in height to the stage building, to the uppermost cavea ensured the optimisation of sound acoustics within the theatre. The carving of some names in the form of gravures on the cavea benches shows that there were regular customers of the theatre. The spectators, after passing the vomitories, could come to the 24m. diameter orchestral court and, from there, reach the upper tiers through 10 steep stone-cut stairs between the caveas. On top of the vomitories, the imperial boxes belonging to the city administrators can be seen. The internal face of the stage building is decorated with columns, with 20 Corinthian capitals at the bottom and 20 Ionic capitals at the top, and these columns are ornamented in-between with niches of various sizes embellished with marble plates and figured reliefs. Statues of Gods and the Roman emperors occupied these niches. On top of the stage building, the relief of Bacuss, God of entertainment and wine, is visible. Actors finishing their preparations in the chambers of various sizes within the stage building appeared, through one big door in the middle and 4 small doors at the sides, on a wooden podium 2 metres high established over the orchestra and performed their plays on this podium. Theatrical plays were generally performed by three people in ancient times and there was a chorus behind the actors consisting of a maximum of 20 people wearing the masks of animal-gods and various mythological heroes. Women were forbidden to take part in the plays. The fact that theatre initially appeared in the name of Bacuss, God of entertainment and wine, through street festivities during vintage times shows that it was a godly rite in its origin. Therefore, during the Hellenistic era theatre actors were respected with a godly faith. Yet during the Roman era, performers were considered as nothing but humiliated actresses. The first play performed at the theatre was tragedia and everybody, including the emperor, and every point could be criticised during the play. The actors, descending down the wooden podium at the end of the play, started a mutual discussion with the spectators and the dialogues on the points criticised continued for hours. It was also the case that the theatres were largely popular among the lay people in ancient times and that the spectators, paying stones or metal chips to enter into the theatre, sometimes spent their entire day there. The Aspendos theatre preserved its true theatrical character during the Byzantine epoch, never having been turned into an arena where bloodshed games were exhibited. The theatre, which served as an outdoor church during the late Byzantine epoch, was used as a caravanserai in the wake of capture of the area by the Turks in the 12th century and until recently, thus surviving the present times in a sound condition. The Antalya Music and Film Festival gala is performed here every year. On the acropolis hill rising behind the theatre gallery, an agora encircled by a double row of columns in the middle and, to the north of this, the remains of a building belonging to the city administration measuring 16 m in height with 5 niches on the façade, are visible. The wall projection of the building is carried by a pair of columns and it is thought that this place was also used as a single-basin fountain. To the South of Agora, it is thought that there used to be a magazine with shops inside the big rectangular structure. It is understood that, to the South of this structure, there was a waste water canal within a vaulted corridor. To the North of Agora, the quadrangular structure with walls measuring 2 m in height was used as an Orthodox Basilica annexed to the magazine building during the Byzantine epoch. To the West of Agora, a complex of small shops lined next to each other with a gallery behind and, in front of these shops, a Stoa thought to have been covered with a block of architrave rising above the columns are visible. The shops are two-storey, with the second storeys carried by the columns. The acropolis city gate situated at the northern hillside of the acropolis exhibits the Roman architectural characteristics. Immediately to the North of the theatre is the Stadion built upon arches. The stadion, of which the western side was built into the acropolis hillside, rises above vaulted galleries in the east. It is understood that in the stadion with a seating capacity of 10,000, races with single chariots  drawn by the horses bred in Aspendos were highly popular. To the east of the Stadion is a tomb house with a sarchophagus visible inside. Advancing from this tomb house towards the aqueducts it is possible to see the sarcophagi embellished with various figures. A little further on one notices the tombstones with names engraved in the Luwian/Etruscan language, which are embellished with various Anatolian flower motifs. Another of the most important remains of the ancient city Aspendos surviving up to this day is the Aqueduct carrying spring water from the Taurus mountains and valleys at a distance of 25 km from the city. These water conduits, functioning on the principle of combined containers, were built upon aqueducts of 15 m on level plateaus and 30 m on certain points and were at places built double-storeyed, with high towers added at turning points. These aqueducts are considered today among the best examples of the Roman era aqueducts in the world. Over Eurymedon/Köprü Çay there is a bridge with foundations built of block stones during the Roman epoch which was later rebuilt by the Seljuks with eight pointed arches upon ruined foundations. It was in front of this bridge that the Persians were defeated in the sea battle fought against the league navy under the command of Cimon in 469 B.C. and, thus, the league navy stated to consist of 800 galleys won the first great sea victory in the world. After this victory the Persians were also defeated in the wars fought on land in Anatolia and they started to retreat from Anatolia. Today there are touristic shopping centres and trout restaurants on the banks of the Creek.

 

KÖPRÜLÜ KANYON / BEŞKONAK NATIONAL PARK


            Köprülü Kanyon (Bridged Canyon) National Park is located at a distance of 65 km from Side on the hillsides of the Taurus Mountains. Within the Park flows the River Köprü, 120 km long, between the valleys and canyons. The National Park covers an area of 37 thousand hectares. Mount Dipoyraz located to the east is 2.980 m high, with its hillsides covered with forests. The river valley within the Park is 14 km long and, at places, 400 m high and in the form of a canyon with steep walls. The most important morphological characteristic at the site is this steep cleft valley. Over the canyons, on the graded land near Selge, are Labyas in karstic topographic form, the local name for which is “Devil’s Rocks”. The thickest Mediterranean Cypress forest in the world is here. This long and thin species of tree with a long life span has been processed since ancient times because of its superior quality. The flora of the National Park mainly consist of Red Pine, Black Fir, Cedar, Fir, Cypress, Ash, Holly Oak and Oak trees, along with Sessile Glandules, Wild Olive, Sandalwood, Strawberry, Gum Mastic, Locust, Bay, Myrtle, Mediterranean Medlar, Sloe Tree, Oleander, Pitch-pine, Wild Rose, Heather, Spurge, Tamarisk, Thyme, Blackberry, Fern and Chinaberry. The Chinaberry Tree, which is also known under the name “Kara Günlük (Storax)” was engraved on coinage as a symbol of the city during the ancient epoch of Selge. It is observed that the local people live off grape, wine, olive and timber trade and livestock dealing. As for the animal species of the fauna within the National Park, there are deer, mountain goats, pigs, bears, foxes, wolves, rabbits, martens, partridges, pigeons, woodcocks, turtle doves, eagles, falcons and carp, and there are trout production centres and restaurants at the mouth of the canyon. Rafting and canoeing sports are organised in the canyon today.

 

SELGE

            The remains of the Ancient City of Selge at an altitude of 1250 m on the Taurus Mountains are located within the settlement unit of Zerk Village / Altınkaya. The area, enjoying the beauties of a deep canyon, waterfalls and mountains between pine forests is an ideal site for photographers. It is thought that the name Selge was derived from “Salaga” meaning “deep valley” in the Luwian/Etruscan language. Moreover, according to the Gök Turk/Turquoise phonetic writing Selge means Usoluğu-Suoluğu (Water Gutter-Wisdom Gutter). The city is reached by passing the 2 m wide Moka Bridge, made of a single large arch and stone blocks. According to the Hittite inscriptions, the area is situated within the Pithassa/Pisidia region. The city folk reputed for their fighting merits and heroic acts sided with the Trojan King Hector during the Trojan War, exacted tribute on some cities and, during the Persian occupation, served as mercenaries for them. The most important historical event of the city is the war of Pednelisos waged against Pednelisos in the north in which the city retreated, accepting the heavy conditions of the war. Later they were subordinated to King Amintas of the Galatians, which was a Nordic tribe just like themselves, except that in every epoch they used and maintained their own language. During the Byzantine epoch Vikings within the Byzantine army rebelled against the Byzantium and upon losing the battle fought against the Byzantine army, they escaped towards the Selge area, thus causing their traces to disappear. Owing to the displacement of the overland trade route which gradually connected Central Anatolia with the Pamphylian littoral towards Kremna and Ariassos, and the pillages, the people abandoned Selge and settled down by the coastal cities. It is understood that Selge was encircled with walls all around and that between the walls it had a great city gate, guarded by watch towers on both sides. The most important remains are the theatre, where there were 30 caveas on the lower floor and 15 caveas on the upper floor, and passage between caveas was ensured by 12 steep stairs. The spectators’ section is divided in the middle by a wide diazoma and the armchairs made of block stones on the diazoma are striking. According to the inscriptions, it is understood that competitions were organized here every 4 years and that the statues of the champion sportsmen were erected. In the godly space to the West are the remains of the chief god Zeus and his temples and in the south are those of the Temple of Sanda, Anatolian God of Masculinity and War. In the lower part of the godly space a water cistern used to collect rain water is visible. To the east of the ancient city was an Agora measuring 50x50 m in dimension, open on the southern side, with rows of shops on the other three sides surrounded by columns. The 120 m long structure to the north is thought to have been a basilica dating to the Byzantine era. Furthest east is the Necropolis of the city. On the northern slope of the Necropolis hill three great tomb houses are visible which have partly survived until the present time.

 
SİDE-SELİMİYE


75 km along the Antalya-Alanya motorway one goes in a seaward direction for 3km to reach Selimiye. Selimiye, which is located upon a peninsula bearing the same name is situated on the ruins of the city of Side. The area is favoured by Turkish tourism with excellent holiday villages and hotels on the shores of Titreyengöl and Kumköy. Along with the sea, sand and sun tourists are offered cultural, hunting, natural, yachting, mountain, rafting, camp tourism and jeep-safari tours. According to Anatolian mythology, Side, Goddess of Nature and Fertility, taking her little daughter, goes to the valley of the river Manauwa/Manavgat together with the Nymphs. As she is picking flowers with the Nymphs, Side comes across a tree with thin branches, bright leaves and colourful flowers and breaks off the tree branch  to give to her little daughter. Blood starts to drip from the branch. At that instant Side understands that it was actually a Nymph, disguising herself as a tree in order to protect herself from the ill-willed humans chasing her, and becomes very sad. She wants to walk away quickly. Her feet get stuck in the ground, buried under the earth, and she cannot move. Starting with her feet, her body begins to form a thin layer of bark and to take the shape of a tree. The nymphs, becoming sad at this, weep and wet Side’s roots. Saying what she did was a mistake she tells the Nymphs: “I will hereafter be a symbol of nature, life and fertility with my rich fruit the colour of blood; do bring my daughter here often, so she will play under my shade. Let her not damage any tree. Maybe every tree or flower is a God in disguise.” So, the Side peninsula is filled with the trees of Side believed to have formed as such according to mythology. It is known that the name Side means “Pomegranate” in the Luwian/Etruscan language. It is understood that the name Side, as written in the Gök Turk alphabet, is ış.ot.oğhu – ışık otağı/ışıklı otağ-Işotağ (light tent/lighted tent) which passed into French as “Chateau”, English as “City”, German as “Stadt” and Italian as “Citta”, and used to mean “city”. The fact that the origin of the language of Side includes Luwian characteristics testifies that the history of the city dates back to around 4000 B.C. It is thought that the people of Side were engaged in fishing and maritime trade on a small scale during this time. The population of the city increased with the immigration of the various Anatolian peoples returning from the Trojan War to Side. The city which remained within the boundaries of western Cilicia of the Kizzuwatna Late Hittite principality during the 9th century B.C. joined the Lydian league in the 7th century and went under Persian sovereignty in 546 B.C. The city, which opened its gates to the Macedonian King Alexander the Great without resistance in 334 B.C., was forced to add Hellenistic cultural elements to daily life. Moreover, religious faiths also changed. Athena was identified with the Anatolian Mother Goddess, Kybele and Apollon with the Moon God, Men. The city passed to the Kingdom of Pergamum for some time and then, becoming a base for pirate attacks early in the 1st century B.C., the biggest slave market of the Mediterranean was established. Upon the clearance of the Mediterranean shores from pirates it was annexed to the Roman lands and during the Pax Romana era it reached the peak of its progress. After the 5th century A.D. it became the bishopric centre and some of the temples were transformed into Orthodox churches. From the 7th century onwards it was exposed to and ruined and destroyed by the Arab raids and the city people immigrated to the capital of the Pamphylian region, Attaleia. Because of the sand erosion advancing towards the eastern gate and the earthquakes of the 9th and 12th centuries the city was razed to the ground. The Turks who came to the area in 1207 settled down in the northeast of the ancient city. The area which remained within the Seljuk boundaries until the 14th century was annexed to the Ottoman lands in 1391. The Turks who recently immigrated from the island of Crete settled down here and founded a village named Selimiye at the end of the peninsula. What is noteworthy upon entering the city are the remains of the city walls and entrance gate. The remains of the Aqueduct carrying water to Side are seen near the gate. In front of the remains are the ruins of a great, three-storeyed monumental fountain, 15 m high and 35 m wide, covered with marble embellished with geometrical and plant motifs on the façade. On the façade of the fountain are the niches in the form of oyster shells between the columns with Corinthian capitals visible. The Colonnaded Street, 250 m long, has today been asphalt-covered and t


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